Tag: Online Marketing

A Crash Course in Microcopy: How to Craft the Perfect Words for Social Media Captions

Copywriting is one of the most essential skills for a marketer to have.

Good copy is everywhere! Websites, advertisements, blog posts, and especially on social media.

We want to give you the tools to write exceptional copy for even the tiniest of things on social: captions, tweets, Stories, and more.

Consider this a crash course in copywriting for all the little things you write on social media everyday. Every word counts, and we want to help make sure even your small words have a big impact!

Keep reading for many tips on how to craft the perfect words and phrases in your captions, tweets, and Stories.

First things first: The basics of length and character limits

Let’s start at the top …

What’s the best length for your social media copy?

We sometimes bristle a bit at the notion of “best,” only because “best” seems to be more and more relative to each particular social media account today. Your best length of post is unique to you and is based on your social media stats. 

That being said, when you look in aggregate, these are some good guidelines and starting points for you to test with.

On Facebook, several studies have found that statuses around 40 to 80 characters perform best. (The previous sentence was right around 80 characters, if that helps you imagine how much to write.)

Headlines for Facebook ads are even shorter. An AdEspresso study found that the most popular headline length for ads was just five words.

Here are all the major character limits for Facebook:

  • Facebook Posts: 63,206 characters
  • Facebook Ads image/ video: body text – 125 characters
  • Facebook Ads (link) image/ video: headline – 25 characters
  • Facebook Ads (link) image/ video: link description – 30 characters
  • Facebook Ads (all types) – no image can be more than 20% text

For your Instagram captions, you can write reallllllly long … The caption limit is 2,200 characters. Again, your particular “best” length will be unique to you. But if you’re looking for a place to start, the team at Social Report found that captions less than 125 characters do best. 

This doesn’t necessarily include hashtags either. Many brands add multiple hashtags either to their caption or to the first comment of their post. Best practices range anywhere from 4 to 9 hashtags being ideal. 

We recently launched a feature within Buffer that lets you save hashtag groups to use again. You can start a free trial at buffer.com to give it a try. 

Here are the limits for Instagram:

  • Instagram Caption Character Limit: 2,200 characters
  • Instagram Hashtag Limit: 30 hashtags
  • Instagram Ads image/ video: text – 2 rows of text
  • Instagram Ads (all types) – no image can be more than 20% text

On Twitter, you have up to 280 characters to use. The most common lengths for tweets are somewhere between 71 and 100 characters.

And on Pinterest, you can write a title and description for your pin. For the title, you have up to 100 characters to use and with the description you get 500 characters. The first 50-60 characters are most likely to show up in people’s feeds, and if you don’t put in a title, then people see your description instead. So it’s definitely important to key in on those first words in your description.

Ok, now that you know the boundaries for your copy on social media, let’s talk about a couple more social-specific copywriting tips. These tie directly into your social media strategy, too, so they shouldn’t be too much of a stretch.

1. Begin your planning with copy (not visuals)

What’s your process for coming up with social media copy? 

We often think of the visuals being the primary asset in a great social media post, but …

What if you started with copywriting first? 

It might not be the way that everyone does it, but those that do, they swear by this process. On her blog, Karola Karlson shares her four-step process, which features copy before visuals:

  • Step 1: Plan what you want to say
  • Step 2: Plan the exact wording
  • Step 3: Develop the post’s design
  • Step 4: Upload and publish your message

You can definitely experiment with the order in which you set things up. Reach out to us on social with hashtag #bufferpodcast to let us know how you do it. 

2. Pay Attention to Trending Content

These trends can be incredibly helpful for that initial stage of “planning what to say.” For instance, you can check a social media event calendar to see what’s happening this week. Or, you can eye a section like Twitter’s trends to see what people are talking about right now. 

This is especially useful when you’re planning the exact wording of what to say because you might want to incorporate a popular hashtag or some new Internet lingo. 

Staying on top of the social trends will help your copy feel relevant and memorable. 

3. Be Aware of Keywords and Hashtags for Discoverability

This is where discoverability and copywriting combine. You’ll need to be thinking about both. 

Of course, there can definitely be times when you opt for a more clever wording over a clear keyword. And that’s okay — especially if it fits your brand voice, and particularly on personality-rich places like Twitter and Instagram. 

When you’re optimizing for discoverability and search — for instance, on a site like Pinterest — you’ll want to consider your keywords and hashtags. Pinterest engineer Heath Vinicombe recently shared how Pinterest’s AI comes up with keywords based on what you write in your captions, so it pays to be clear.

And while we’re on the topic of social-specific copywriting, I wanted to mention a couple quick formatting tips, too:

  • You can use caps lock to highlight certain words in your text. 
  • Line spacing can help split long paragraphs into multiple text blocks. 
  • Same goes with bullet points and emoji — these can help break up blocks of text.
  • On Twitter in particular, our best-performing tweets use a line breaks and then an emoji as a bullet point at the start of each new line.

4. Use these tips to find the perfect word to use

The word might be a power word, one of those catchy words that convert and get people to click. Or maybe it’s just a word that sounds cool.

In terms of power words, we highly encourage you to check out the post above. Super quick, we’ll mention that the five most persuasive words in the English language are:

  • You
  • Free
  • Because
  • Instantly
  • New

We also love a few catchy ones like “Suddenly,” “Remarkable,” and “Announcing,” too.

But let’s come back to that concept of cool-sounding words.

How do you find a cool-sounding word?

One way is to consider the specific letters in the words you’re using, particularly when it comes to stop consonants and glide consonants.

Stop consonants are those that cause the vocal tract to block when pronouncing the consonant.

Glide consonants do not obstruct the vocal tract and are quite frictionless when spoken.

If you’re thinking, Huh? We were too! It’s a bit confusing until you hear some examples. 

Here’s an example that uses stop consonants. See if you can hear the staccato rhythm:

Somewhere a ponderous tower clock slowly dropped a dozen strokes into the gloom.

– James Thurber, The Wonderful O

And here’s one that uses glide consonants. Hopefully you can hear a smoother flow.

Time flies over us, but leaves its shadow behind.

–  Nathaniel Hawthorne

The effect of a stop consonant is to slow the flow of a word or sentence, thereby bringing a certain focus to a particular word or phrase.  Stop consonants help highlight what comes next. Stop consonants include:

  • t
  • d
  • k
  • g
  • b
  • p

Glide consonants, on the other hand, can lead to a really smooth flow from word to word and in the greater context of a sentence or paragraph.Glide consonants include:

  • l
  • r
  • j
  • w

So, now that we know how words are constructed to sound good and capture attention, next comes the work of …

5. Structure your words so that they have maximum impact (literary devices)

There are some interesting literary devices you can use here, too. One that I wanted to point out in particular though is parallelism.

With parallelism, you repeat words and sentence structures in a strategic way. There’s a really cool and catchy rhythm to this type of writing. Here’s an example you might have heard of:

It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness

Now, one of the most interesting parts of writing great captions is knowing where to put your strongest words and sentences. Do you put them at the beginning, the middle, or the end?

One way we like to think of it is that you want to guide the reader through your text. 

In order to do this, you need to capture attention first. You can do this by using a power word to start, by placing your key message in the first sentence, or by using short, “be”-sentences to start a paragraph. “Be”-sentences are those simple ones that include a “be” verb like

  • am
  • is
  • are
  • was
  • were
  • be
  • being
  • been

Once you have your reader hooked, you can keep them interested in the caption by using some of the methods we mentioned earlier about catchy words and phrases. Then, when you get to the end, try a “climax expression.” Basically: Whatever your most important phrase is within your sentence, have it come last.

Another way to capture people’s attention is to …

6. Try some proven copywriting formulas

There are a bunch to choose from. We’ll run through a few of our favorites, and link to a bunch of others in the show notes.

If – then

As you could probably tell, this formula begins with an “if” statement … If you have this particular need … and it follows with a “then” … then here’s the solution. 

What Most People Do…

The hook of this formula is that, unfortunately, people might be doing the wrong thing. But that’s okay! Your copy is here to show the right way. An example of this might be: “What most people do about writing social media captions is think of them as an afterthought. Yikes! Here’s why you should think copy-first.”

Imagine if … // You’re standing at a crossroads

Another popular construction is to get people to dream about the future. So formulas like “Imagine if …” can be really effective. 

And a related one is the phrase:“You’re standing at a crossroads.” This makes the reader feel like they are at a decision-making point, and then your copy can help them make that decision. 

Before – After – Bridge

The way it works is that you show your audience what life is like right now, then show them how things could be better afterward. Then bridge the two by explaining how your solution can help. 

We use before-after-bridge a lot with our blog post introductions, too.

We could go on and on for hours about more formulas and copywriting tips, but we imagine this might be enough to chew on for one day. We’ll link to a bunch of additional resources below. 

How to say hello to us

We would all love to say hello to you on social media – especially Twitter!

Thanks for listening! Feel free to connect with our team at Buffer on TwitterBuffer on Facebook, our Podcast homepage, or with the hashtag #bufferpodcast.

Enjoy the show? It’d mean the world to us if you’d be up for giving us a rating and review on iTunes!

About The Science of Social Media podcast

The Science of Social Media is your weekly sandbox for social media stories, insights, experimentation, and inspiration. Every Monday (and sometimes more) we share the most cutting-edge social media marketing tactics from brands and influencers in every industry. If you’re a social media team of one, business owner, marketer, or someone simply interested in social media marketing, you’re sure to find something useful in each and every episode.  It’s our hope that you’ll join our 27,000+ weekly iTunes listeners and rock your social media channels as a result!

The Science of Social Media is proudly made by the Buffer team. Feel free to get in touch with us for any thoughts, ideas, or feedback.


10+ Indispensable (and Free!) Marketing Graders and Social Media Scores

You can audit your marketing in many ways—be it a quick-and-simple social media audit or a full-scale blog review. You can take the time to run the numbers yourself (a useful exercise!), or you can plug a URL into a new tool and have it tell you what it thinks.

The more feedback, the better.

That’s why we’re such big fans of quick and efficient marketing graders. You get actionable data, and you get it in seconds.

I’ve bookmarked several of my favorites and dug up a handful of other useful graders and tools to come up with this list of 10+ website graders, content scores, and social media ratings. Take them for a spin, and let me know which ones are most beneficial for you and your content!

Indispensable Grading Tools to Fine-Tune Your Marketing

1. Hubspot’s Marketing Grader

The Buffer website’s score from HubSpot’s website grader

Enter your blog’s URL and your email address, and press go. Marketing Grader will give you an overall score for your website, based on four categories:

  1. Performance
  2. Mobile
  3. SEO
  4. Security

Each section has a checklist of items as well as grades for individual aspects of the category. For instance, Website Grader will check your site for page titles, meta descriptions, and headings — all of which are useful elements for strong SEO and also quite useful for having shareable social media content. SEO titles and descriptions are what appear natively when you share links on your social profiles.

2. Nibbler

Nibbler score for the MeUndies website and social profiles

The free Nibbler test looks at a laundry list of site and blog characteristics—more than 20 high-level items—spitting out an overall score (on a scale of 1 to 10) and a list of improvements ordered by priority.

Nibbler is one of the tools that goes the deepest on tying the website and social media profiles together. It will check for things like:

  • Twitter and Facebook pages, both whether you have one and whether or not they’re linked to from your website
  • The social interest of your website: how many times your links have been shared on social recently
  • Plus a ton of social-first on-page metrics like the amount of content and images, plus meta titles and descriptions.

Useful takeaway:

The heading word cloud at Nibbler shows exactly which words we’ve been using most often in our headings and titles. For instance, on the Buffer blog we’re aiming to be an authority on social media marketing, so we’re happy to see “social” and “media” rank so highly. It’s also neat to see what other words you might be getting mileage for, without even knowing it.

In our case, we seem to mention the words “minutes” and “good-looking” quite a lot!

Screen Shot 2014-11-01 at 9.04.39 AM

For a quick example case, we ran the MeUndies website through Nibbler to see what it found. Here are the top recommendations that Nibbler came up with: 

  • Add social media buttons on articles and pages of your website. 
  • Link your Facebook page from your website
  • Add meaningful anchor text to your links

3. Woorank

WooRank grade for Warby Parker’s marketing

WooRank’s free tool tests seven aspects of your site—SEO, mobile, usability, technologies, social, local, and traffic. They’ve got just about everything covered here. The final result is a score on a scale of 1 to 100 and a report that you can download as a pdf or slides to share with your team.

The social section in particular goes really deep. It’s almost like a full social media audit of its own!

That’s right. Woorank will tell you all these things about your social profiles:

  • Engagement rates
  • Profile descriptions
  • Profile cover photos
  • URLs
  • and contact info

And Woorank displays it all in an easy-to-view format so you can quickly see how your social profiles stack up side-by-side. This can be invaluable if you’re trying to maintain a consistent brand across multiple profiles.

Useful takeaway:

Woorank is that it analyzes your site to make sure you . have the proper meta tags in place, specifically with Facebook’s Open Graph protocol. This is the meta information that tells Facebook what picture to show and what titles and descriptions to use whenever someone shares your site on social media.

We did a quick grade for the Warby Parker website, and wow, they came out looking great. Woorank gives them a 94 score.

4. W3C validator


The previous graders on this list have been full of helpful, high-level marketing tips. The W3C Validator gives you straight-up fixes to make.

Run your site through W3C Validator, and see exactly which code errors appear on your website. The validator tool tells you the specific line of code in which the error appears. After the must-fix items, you also receive a series of warnings that could be worth checking into also.

Useful takeaway:

Many of of W3C’s warnings come across as helpful guidance. For instance, W3C recommends that each page have only one <h1> tag. This will typically be the headline of a blogpost or title of a page, and then other information—like calls-to-action or email signup forms—can take <h2> or <h3> headings instead.

Recommendations for the Buffer blog:

  • Double-check the way we add utm parameters to links
  • Fix an alt tag in our email signup form

5. Clarity Grader

Most of the above tools look at various marketing and technical aspects of your site. Clarity Grader checks the words themselves.


The report details the language you use on the site, analyzing 20 pages to come up with some incredibly sharp linguistic insights.

  • Passive voice
  • Long sentences
  • Adverbs
  • Grade level

(Note: When you run the tool, you also sign up for Clarity Grader.)

Useful takeaway:

The “cliches and jargon” test at Clarity Grader has a ton of interesting insights. It’s amazing how often I’m tempted to use words that appear in this list.

common cliches

In addition to the cliches and jargon, you can change the “bad language” dictionary to show your score versus Complex Words, Legal Jargon, and Sexist terms.

Bonus tool:

If you’re worried about sounding too business-y in your writing, we’d recommend checking out Jargon Grader. All you have to do is paste in a bunch of text, and it will identify the number of jargon words you used. We ran some of our podcast show notes through the tool, and found out that the word “content” qualifies as jargon. Ooops!

6. MetaTags.io

Now, this one is a bit different than the other tools we’ve listed because it doesn’t spit out a clear number score or letter grade. But it’s no less powerful and actionable.

With MetaTags.io, you can enter in the URL from any page and see exactly how it will look on a variety of places. The full list includes:

  • Facebook
  • Google
  • Twitter
  • LinkedIn
  • Pinterest
  • even Slack

You’ll see a full preview of your link within the exact UI of each of these platforms. This way, you can tell how your headline and description and image all fit together when shared online. 

You can even edit the text within the MetaTags tool itself, in order to find that perfect pairing.

One other thing we love about MetaTags is that you can pay to download it as a WordPress plugin for your blog or website. This way, you can run a MetaTags check on all your content before it’s published in order to ensure that it will be shared just the way you want.

7. GradeMyAds

GradMyAds analyzes whether your social ads are working or not. To get started with GradeMyAds, you authorize with your Facebook credentials. This gives the tool a way to examine your Facebook ads account and give you grades for Facebook and Instagram advertising. 

The insights you get are really fascinating. 

You’ll get a score from 1 to 100. Plus, you’ll have a breakdown of ad spend in the past 30 days, people reached in the past 30 days, and average Return on Ad Spend for your campaigns. 

What’s also great is that GradeMyAds will tell you your five top-performing ads in three different categories: Your best ads in terms of cost per engagement, relevance score, and total ad spend.

One useful tip to get the most out of this tool: If you click on the score itself, GradeMyAds will tell you how it arrived at its calculation and all the different factors it considered. In the case of the Buffer ad accounts, we learned some really insightful tips on the consistency of our ads and their overall quality. We’re really glad we tried this tool!

8. Brand Grader

Brand Grader will grade your brand’s presence online. It’s built by the folks at Mention who make a pretty great tool for social monitoring and listening. 

When you plug in the name of a brand, Brand Grader will give you an influencer score based on the influential journalists, bloggers, and thought leaders who are talking about your brand. It will break down the top web and social sources where your brand has been mentioned recently, as well as a chart for the volume of mentions and a map for the geographic demographics of where you’ve been mentioned. It will even gauge sentiment.

We ran a test with Leesa mattresses to see how their brand ranked, and boy are they looking good! Their sentiment score was 92% positive, and they have some really influential sites talking about them — including Wikipedia.

(This next series of scores go a bit beyond simply typing your website URL and pressing Enter. Some of these are part of premium products or require a free account or ask you to be pretty proficient with spreadsheets. If you’re wanting to keep things free and easy, you can try the do-it-yourself route, and take inspiration from the way these tools score content.)

9. Google’s Content Quality Score

Primary factors:

  • Quality and quantity of main content
  • Level of E.A.T. – Expertise, Authority, Trust
  • Reputation

Secondary factors:

  • Website information
  • Helpful supplemental content
  • Functional page design
  • Website maintenance

Terence Mace of Mace Dynamics wrote a detailed post about the signals of Google’s content quality score, a direct influence on how Google ranks pages in search results. Google does not promote the specifics of the score, so Terence did some digging, testing, and experimenting to come up with his list of factors.

Here’s a little more on three intriguing ones.

Quality and quantity of the main content depends on how well the content meets the purpose of the page. One interesting factor that Google may consider is dwell time, i.e. how long a person spends on a site after clicking a search result and before clicking back to the results page. The more dwell time, the better.

E.A.T. can include author rank, page rank, and a number of specific ways to measure trust (like the very untrustworthy footer text “domain is for sale”)

Reputation includes what others say about your or your company/brand online. These are some of the sources considered:

  • News articles
  • Wikipedia articles
  • Blog posts
  • Magazine articles
  • Forum discussions

10. Moz’s One Metric


  • Unique visits
  • Thumbs up on a story
  • Comments
  • Facebook likes
  • Tweets
  • Google+ Plus Ones

The Moz One Metric combines the above factors to compare blogposts and score new content based on its performance relative to the average. So if a new blogpost gets more uniques, comments, and tweets than normal, its One Metric score will soar.

moz one metric

Moz outlined their entire process, and you can copy and edit your own version of the One Metric, customized with the stats and weights that are important to you. We’ve been using a Buffer version of the One Metric that also includes Time on Page, LinkedIn Shares, and syndication as part of the final score. (We built one for our social media content, too.)

11. BuzzFeed’s Viral Lift


  • Social shares
  • Clicks
  • Views

BuzzFeed editors can see a simple overlay on all stories on the homepage. One of these stats is viral lift, a measurement of the number of times a story is shared (and clicked) per view from the website or an ad.


The Contently blog followed up with some added context to some of the other factors that BuzzFeed considers. One of these factors is engaged time, specifically the percentage of the page that the reader has scrolled/read. BuzzFeed’s Ky Harlin explained how this metric impacts the content.

We treat each individual item in a list almost like its own article. So we’ll try to really figure out what people are engaging with and turn a list of 45 items to a list of 25 items without the duds, reordered to make it most likely to share.


What insights can you find about your marketing? 

Do you have a system in place for scoring and tracking the performance of your marketing?

I’d love to hear what you learn from these tools and what you do for your website and blog and social media. Please leave any thoughts you might have in the comments!

Image sources: IconFinder, Blurgrounds, Contently, Fast Company, Jay Mantri


7 Invaluable Marketing Skills That Help Teams Produce Consistently Great Content

In speaking with thousands of marketers and businesses over the past several years, we’ve learned that marketing has an incredible potential to impact people’s lives.

In fact, the American Marketing Association defines marketing as:

“The activity, set of institutions, skills, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”

I love that. We as marketers are benefiting society at large!

But marketing skills and career growth don’t come easy in a field that moves at the speed of light. It seems like every week companies are demanding an evolved skill set out of their employees – giving rise to a new era of marketing roles such as the Full-Stack and T-Shaped Marketer.

Brands that can successfully bring a variety of people, marketing skills, and unique perspectives together have a huge advantage when it comes to providing value.

That’s why we’ve partnered with the incredible marketing team at Asana, a leading work management software, to break down the top 7 invaluable marketing skills that help some of the greatest brand teams on the planet produce consistently great content.

Let’s dive in!

7 Invaluable Marketing Skills for Team

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7 invaluable marketing skills for teams

As Sujan Patel writes on his blog, “the modern marketer has to be familiar with a lot, good at many, and master of a few.”

Having a variety of skills and tools not only provides ultimate flexibility as a team to create a variety of successful marketing campaigns, but it also allows each marketer to shine as an individual.

These 7 high-level marketing skills will help to ensure your team has ultimate flexibility and individuality.

1. Storytelling

There seems to be a general belief that marketing has always been about storytelling – and that marketers have always identified as natural storytellers.

But that may not be the case.

LinkedIn found that just seven years ago the number of marketers listing “storytelling” on their profile as a skill was obsolete. It didn’t exist at all as a respected marketing discipline.

Today, however, between 7 and 8 percent of all marketers on LinkedIn worldwide identify themselves as storytellers based on their profile descriptions and list of skills.

Storytelling Marketing Skills

As a marketer, storytelling doesn’t just mean telling your audience what your product or service does or what it has done. Effective storytelling involves a deep understanding of human emotions, motivations, and psychology in order to effectively communicate with them in an authentic and engaging way.

During the writing of this article, Asana CMO Dave King told me: “The best marketers are problem solvers and storytellers. Content creators should ask ‘what problem is this piece solving for my audience.’”

As marketers, there are endless ways to tell a story.

One of my favorite ways to develop a compelling story is to use “The Story Spine” formula created by professional playwright and improvisor Kenn Adams. Over the years, Pixar has won countless awards by using this formula, including 13 Academy Awards, 9 Golden Globes, and 11 Grammys.

The Story Spine - Pixar Marketing Skills

Once upon a time there was ___. Every day, ___. One day ___. Because of that, ___. Because of that, ___. Until finally ___.

I encourage you to practice this formula for your own own brand, products, or services.

Let’s give it a shot with a brand we might all know of: Nike.

  • Once upon a time there was a passionate shoemaker that wanted to get his shoes into the hands of runners around the world.
  • Every day, he worked on perfecting his shoes so that these runners could perform at an optimum level.
  • But one day, this shoemaker realized that supplying shoes to thousands of runners around the world was no easy task.
  • Because of that, he worked harder and harder to ensure that he had the supply of products needed to be successful despite what critics said.
  • Because of that, his shoes continued to improve and more and more athletes started to wear them in prestigious competitions.
  • Until finally, it wasn’t just about running anymore. It became about something bigger – finding your inner champion doing what you love in gear that makes you feel great.

As Ken describes, “The Story Spine is not the story, it’s the spine. It’s nothing but the bare-boned structure upon which the story is built. And, that’s what makes it such a powerful tool.”

It’s up to us as marketers to fill in all the little nuances of the story.

2. Prioritizing

As many marketers know all too well – there is always something to be done.

Being an effective prioritizer is one of those marketing skills that doesn’t get talked about enough, but plays a huge role in the success of your team and content.

Producing consistently great content means saying yes to a handful of awesome content ideas/opportunities and saying no to others.

The Asana marketing team uses a project labeled “Content Opportunities” to which anyone in the company is highly encouraged to contribute ideas. Then, when their marketing team is ready to take action on a piece of content or campaign, they add it to their Editorial Calendar project.

Asana Dashboard - 7 Invaluable Marketing Skills

This management of ideas, projects, and initiatives is what allows them to be super focused and productive on a consistent basis.

So how can you develop prioritization as a marketing skill? And how can you prioritize content and campaigns that will perform at a high level?

That’s where the importance of goal-setting comes into play!

At Buffer, we’ve experimented with a variety of goal-setting frameworks such as OKRs, Locke and Latham’s 5 Principles of Goal-Setting, BHAGs, and lots more.

Today, our marketing team is using two types of goal-setting methods depending on the scope. For long-term planning and strategizing, we use a modified Warren Buffett Framework, and for short-term (experimental content), we use a framework called ICE.

The Modified Warren Buffett Framework

My colleague Hailley has long admired the original framework for setting goals from Warren Buffett – a method where you write down 25 things you want to accomplish in your career, and from that, pick the top five as the focus and put the other 20 on an “avoid at all costs” list.

We’ve since adopted a modified version of this goal-setting framework. Here’s a quick overview of how it works (with a real-life example goals from one of our 6-week cycles):

Step 1: Choose 10 goals

Brainstorm a list of 10 goals related to your work on the team that can be accomplished in a certain, predesignated timeframe.

Remember to focus on goals and not tasks. A good way to remember this is that tasks describe how you spend your time, whereas goals are your results.


Warren Buffett Framework Step One

Step 2: Assign a “tag” to each goal

Next, go through and add a tag to each goal with the category that it falls into. The tagging system should be unique for each person.

Come up with your tags, and assign them to each of your 10 goals.


Warren Buffett Framework Step Two

Step 3: Pick three goals to focus on (P1s)

This is the most difficult portion of the exercise! Refining the list from 10 to the three that you will focus on during the specified time period.

Pick one goal for each tag that you have on your list.


Warren Buffett Framework Step Three

Then, add a P2 and a P3 to prioritize the rest of your goals within the list.

That doesn’t mean you have 10 goals all competing with each other at the same time.

It means that as soon as you complete a P1 in any one of the categories, you then (and only then) move onto your P2 and P3.

ICE Score Framework

“ICE” stands for Impact, Confidence, and Ease.

Below is a description of each element directly from the creators of the ICE Score Framework at GrowthHackers:

  • Impact: The possible impact the idea could have on the business if considered a “win
  • Confidence: This relates to how confident you are in whether it’ll result in a wi
  • Ease: This relates to how many resources, and what kind, are needed to implement the idea

For each idea, give each factor a score from one to ten. The overall score is determined by taking the average of the three scores. You should start with the idea that has the highest score.

ICE Score Framework - Marketing Skills

For example, let’s say you wanted to run a content partnership experiment with a peer or influencer within your industry (similar to this one!) Your ICE score might look like this:

  • Impact: 8
  • Confidence: 7
  • Ease: 7
  • Total: 22

Comparing that to other ICE scores, you can quickly determine which ideas to tackle next and which ones to table for the time being. Over time, you’ll be able to score ideas quickly and efficiently.

3. Collaborating

Why is team collaboration necessary?

Part of the answer, according to research from strategy professor Benjamin Jones at the Kellogg School, is that our individual knowledge base is becoming more and more specialized.

Jones gives a great example of the Wright Brothers and building an airplane:

“In 1903, two people designed and flew an airplane. Today, a Boeing 787 has dozens of specialists working on the engines alone. Then there are the controls, the hydraulics, the airframe itself. There is an incredible range of specialized skills needed.”

Generalist vs. Specialist Employee

There is an ever-growing need for collaboration among specialists (teams) within companies to get a product or service off of the ground.

In our experiences at Buffer and Asana, the most successful marketing teams coordinate on two important levels:

  1. Messaging: Ensuring there’s consistency in what is being said across channels (blog, website, social, etc.
  2. Distribution: Planning and sequencing content rollout for maximum impact across channels

By combining the right set of marketing skills in both messaging and distribution you are setting your campaigns up for a much higher rate of success.


Whether you’re launching a full-on marketing campaign or simply posting a video to Facebook, creating a consistent message across channels is an important part of building your brand.

We’ve found that having effective collaboration tools in place makes all of the difference.

Here’s a quick example of some of the tools and workflows we use in order to help our teams create consistent messaging:

  • Kick off a conversation in messaging app, Slack, about the proposed idea or campaign:

Slack Screenshot

  • Start a doc in Dropbox Paper with additional details, comments, copy, etc:

Dropbox Paper Flow

  • Create a project within Asana and assign tasks to team members across the organization:

Asana Project

These three tools are invaluable for transparent and cross-functional collaboration and communication among teams within your organization. They’re especially important for us at Buffer as a fully remote company!


Without a solid distribution plan in place, your messages may never reach their intended audiences. Having the skills to not only create the assets, but efficiently deliver those assets across multiple channels, is an important quality for any marketer.

Here’s a quick look at some of the tools and workflows we use to distribute consistent content:

  • WordPress for hosting and creating blog content:

Buffer Blog

  • Discourse for internal distribution, information, and announcements:

Discourse Overview

  • Buffer for social media planning, scheduling, and analytics:

Buffer - Social Media Tool Dashboard

At the core of any great team collaboration is trust. Trust is the willingness and openness to intentionally communicate with teammates on your direct team and across the company.

It’s up to you to make space (physically or virtually) for people to meet and share ideas. Pixar is a perfect example of this in action – they designed their offices so that artists, designers, programmers, and marketers would purposely bump into each other.

4. Visualizing

Humans are, by nature, very visual beings.

In the brain itself, there are hundreds of millions of neurons devoted to visual processing, nearly 30 percent of the entire cortex, as compared with 8 percent for touch and just 3 percent for hearing.

In other words, the most successful marketing teams are not only able to communicate messages in written form, they’re also able to create stunning designs that aid in telling a compelling visual story.

Social Media Design Principles

We wrote an article in 2017 titled, “Why Every Marketer Needs to Be a (Part-Time) Designer” and the general theory still remains true, even more so, today in 2018.

The best part is there are tons of free resources our there to get started! Here are some of our favorites:

Visual storytelling is one of those marketing skills that often goes overlooked, but plays a massive role in the success of every single piece of content.

5. Experimenting

Have you ever wondered how some marketing teams come up with so many great ideas?

Their secret…

Behind every one successful marketing idea or campaign, there were dozens (if not hundreds) of little failures along the way.

It reminds me a lot of what is known as a Minimum Viable Product (MVP) in product development. A MVP is a product that has the minimum amount of features required to validate if people want it or not.

Minimum Viable Product (MVP)

The same theory holds true for marketing experimentation and testing.

A marketing team that is unafraid of failure and willing to run hundreds of different tests in order to quickly validate ideas will often succeed over a marketing team that puts their eggs (ideas) into one basket (channel/campaign).

The Information, for example, might have hundreds of potential story ideas in Asana at any one time — prioritizing experiments and ideas based on competition, importance, opportunity costs, and lots more.

Although there isn’t a true scientific way of running marketing experiments, this is the formula we’ve come up with at Buffer to systematically test ideas:

How to Run Marketing Experiments

We start with setting clear goals and then work backwards from there.

Let’s say we wanted to increase Buffer blog traffic by 10% in one year (goal).

Our marketing team would start by getting together and brainstorming all of the different ways we could accomplish that – SEO, social media, affiliates, etc.

We’d then prioritize ideas based on impact (Warren Buffett Framework / ICE Scores) and begin testing.

Then, we’d constantly measure and analyze results along the way while making incremental improvements.

Approaching experimentation and testing with a growth mindset, similar to developing a product, is a marketing skill that will help take your team to the next level.

6. Analyzing

As marketers, we’re all somewhere on the analytics expertise scale (whether we know it or not!) From the analytics wizards to those of us just starting to dip our toes in data analysis, we all have a base layer to work from.

Our Director of Marketing at Buffer, Kevan Lee, puts it perfectly:

“The great thing about deepening your skills in analytics is that we all have a base layer to work from. We all know how to build intuition. And intuition is just an absorbed history of data. Add to that the ability to ask good questions, and you’re well on your way. (The tools themselves matter far less than you’d think.)”

Asking good questions, when it comes to data and marketing analytics, is an invaluable marketing skill to have on any team.

This graphic from Moz shows just how many BIG questions there are to ask:

Moz - Asking Great Data Questions

At first, asking all of these questions can be a bit intimidating.

What if I don’t know the answers?

That’s okay!

One way we like to think about approaching analytics is this idea of “Crawl, Walk, Run” – It might look something like this if you’re just starting out:

  • Crawling: Which channels get the most engagement?
  • Walking: Which tactics and/or strategies are contributing to this engagement?
  • Running: Which channels, tactics, and strategies should we implement to increase engagement?

Data Analysis - Crawl Walk Run

Another great way of thinking of analytics is the “Hierarchy of Analytics” model made popular by data wizard Christopher S. Penn:

Hierarchy of Analytics - Christopher Penn copy

In the beginning, you might experiment with various analytics platforms and tools in order to get a feel for the basics of marketing analytics. Understanding what data is available, its limitations, and what you can report is a great start.

Then, as you become more skilled and confident with data, you might dive into things like understanding why something happened or what might happen in the future based on your findings.

There are some incredible data analysis tools out there from companies like Google, IBM, Facebook, Amazon, and Microsoft that can help you do just that!

7. Learning

I like to think that the path to becoming a great marketer is a lifelong journey and never truly complete.

Knowledge, passion, and expertise are intangible qualities that we usually don’t acquire overnight. These are often developed as result of years (even decades) of hard work, mistakes, self-reflection, and personal growth.

Even a virtuoso like Michelangelo was quoted as saying, “I am still learning” late into his career.

Michelangelo quote on Learning

At Buffer and Asana, we aim to build our marketing teams around folks who are naturally curious, hungry to learn, passionate, and open to new ideas.

“A love of learning is one of primary skills we look for in marketers because it tells us a couple things: do they love what they do, and are they curious about the world?” explains Kevan Lee. “Those two factors alone can take you quite far!”

Just like food nourishes our bodies, information and continuous learning nourishes our minds.

But where do you start on your learning journey as a marketer?

We’ve found that having a framework in place allows us to identify opportunities for growth. We call it the T-Shaped Marketer Framework:

Buffer T-Shaped Marketer Framework

T-Shaped Marketing at Buffer. Feel free to grab a download of the Sketch file or Canva template we used to build this, if you’d like to customize it for your company.

I encourage you to create one of these templates for yourself. It’s an incredible, eye-opening activity that will provide you with a clear path forward.

Then, we suggest forming habits around the marketing disciplines you’re most excited about:

  • If you want to get better at data analysis, try taking a course on Udemy or Skillshare to expand your skills
  • If you want to dive into video marketing, experiment with creating a video in Animoto or take a free Adobe Premiere tutorial on YouTube.
  • If social media is your passion, we’ve got a ton of great learning resources on our Social Blog, Skillshare, and the Buffer Podcast.
  • If you want to improve your organization, workflow, or project management skills, Asana has created a ton of great resources and best practices for work management on their blog.

If you’re curious, inquisitive, genuine, and if your intent is sincere, there will always be people who will support you in your journey.

Experiment and try out new things – some of them might even scare you! Once you gain some momentum, keep it going. That will set you up for a lifetime of success in marketing.

Over to you

Thank you so much for checking out this post!

If you’re interested in learning more about career and marketing skills from some uber-talented professionals in the industry, feel free to check out the Asana blog. It’s packed with some incredible insights.

We’d also love to continue the conversation with you below!

What skills are we missing from this list? What has helped your team create consistently great content? What would you suggest to those looking to hire marketers?


How Ahrefs and Buffer Drive 300K+ Sessions Per Month with Evergreen Content and Social Media

  • Learn how we drive the growth of our blog here at Buffer using free, organic traffic strategies.
  • Understand how to amplify blog content by reverse engineering social media videos that your audience will love.
  • See how we generated more than 30,000 clicks to to our content using paid acquisition channels, and how we optimize ads to lower CPC while simultaneously increasing CTR.

Building your website traffic in 2018 is no easy task.

Today, businesses are faced with an ever-increasing amount of online content as well as ongoing changes from search engines such as Google, and constant algorithm updates from platforms like Facebook.

But, if you’re in a competitive industry that is dominated by established sites, all is not lost.

You can still get tons of website traffic with a resourceful content marketing strategy that revolves around producing quality, evergreen pieces of content.

We recently teamed up with Tim Soulo, head of marketing and product strategy at Ahrefs, to discuss what the most successful businesses are doing to generate quality website traffic in 2018.

Prefer video? Check out our webinar below:

Generating quality website traffic

Did you know that more than 90 percent of website pages generate no organic search traffic from Google? In fact, if you look closely, less than 1 percent of website pages drive the majority of organic traffic online:

Ahrefs Web Traffic

That’s why it’s critical to have a content strategy in place that incorporates well-researched, evergreen topics that will drive long-term traffic to your website.

The Buffer blog, for example, gets about 1.3 million visits every month, and more than 80 percent of our website traffic comes from people searching for social media marketing topics on Google and finding our blog posts. This 80 percent is also known as organic traffic and is the most scalable and reliable traffic source for most websites.

We achieved this with having only two content writers for most of the past seven years. If we can do it, you can, too!

Here’s how we approach traffic growth:

Write about evergreen topics and promote them regularly

This first chart shows the traffic of most blog posts written nowadays. The blog post gets a nice spike of traffic from social media and email on the day of publishing. But the traffic fades away over time because the blog post doesn’t rank well on Google and isn’t being promoted on marketing channels anymore.

Spike of traffic example

Now, compare that chart with this second one:

Sustainable traffic example

This blog post also had a nice spike of traffic on the day of publishing. But the traffic didn’t drop over time. In fact, it continues to grow and grow. After three years, this blog post has been viewed more than two million times.

There are several ways to generate evergreen content ideas, but Soulo recommends two proven tactics to consistently increase your success rate.

1. Find popular search terms

Using a tool like the Ahrefs Keyword Explorer, you can search for a single word or phrase related to your product or service:

Ahrefs Keyword Search Tool - Website Traffic

Not only will you be able to view the search volume around the term entered, you’ll also be able to view all related keywords and search volume – providing you with even more content ideas.

2. Research your peers and competitors

Another way to generate keyword and content ideas is by research your peers and competitors.

We particularly like this strategy because it helps to provide even deeper insights into the exact pages other businesses in your industry are ranking for. In other words, you can discover exactly what problems and challenges potential customers are trying to solve.

Ahrefs Site Explorer provides you with an in-depth look at the organic search traffic and backlink profile of any website or URL:

Ahrefs Site Explorer - Website Traffic

Of course, you should never rely on organic search volume alone to help generate evergreen content ideas for your website or blog, but performing the two steps above is one of the best places to start when planning your content for the month, quarter, or year.

“It’s all about studying. Studying what people search for in terms of the topic that you are targeting. If there are a lot of searches, you might want to create an article that would cover most of them. If there aren’t a ton of searches around a particular topic, then there isn’t much opportunity to have your page rank for several keywords and bring you a healthy amount of search traffic.”

Tim Soulo Ahrefs
Tim Soulo (@timsoulo)
Head of Marketing, Ahrefs

Besides choosing the right topics to write (through keyword research) and promoting the blog posts regularly (which you’ll learn more below), we also consistently update our blog posts.

Updating and relaunching your blog posts

Another thing we do is to regularly update our old blog posts to ensure that they are still relevant and useful to our readers.

In the social media space, many things, such as social media image sizes, can change frequently. Many of the blog posts that we write would no longer be helpful to our readers if the information is outdated.

Updating your old blog posts not only keeps your content relevant to your readers but it can also help you rank better on Google and get more sustainable traffic. For example, when we updated our social media analytics tools blog post last year, the number of daily page views more than doubled!

Updating old blog post example

Here’s what we did with that blog post:

  1. Update the content: We added new tools, moved dysfunctional tools, and updated screenshots.
  2. Fine-tune the writing: We re-wrote certain parts to make them read better, added a section on what’s social media analytics, and added anchor tags to make navigation easier.
  3. Relaunch the blog post: Then we updated the published date within WordPress and promoted the blog post on social media and via our email list.

“A good way to look at generating sustainable traffic (or organic traffic) is to think of it as creating helpful and relevant content for your target audience. What topics are your audience always searching for? Write a blog post to help answer their questions. Are your blog posts becoming outdated? Update the content so that your audience will still find it useful.

We have a blog post that goes into more details about how we grew our readership to over a million visits per month. If you are interested in learning more about the intricacies of SEO and generating organic traffic, I would recommend following Ahref’s blog and Moz’s Whiteboard Friday.”

Alfred from Buffer
Alfred Lua (@alfred_lua)
Growth Editor, Buffer

But even with the most quality content in the world, potential customers won’t visit your website unless they know the content is there.

That’s where social media, particularly video and advertising, can help boost the results of your evergreen content strategy above.

Here’s how.

Amplifying content success with social media video

Video is one of the most compelling ways to reach your audience because video is the preferred way people consume information in 2018 and will be for the foreseeable future.

Here is a simple formula for amplifying the success of your content and boosting website traffic.

1. Create video topics from what works

Video is not a whole new type of marketing  – video is a way to amplify your existing marketing strategy.

Start by sorting your most visited blog posts or pages from the previous 90 days in Google Analytics. To access this information, head to Google Analytics > Behavior > Site Content > All Pages:

Google Analytics Data - Buffer

Sorting by Pageviews gives you a precise look at what people are most interested in learning about from your business. It’s a good indication of what sorts of content will make for an engaging video topic.

Next, we create a list of possible video topic ideas based on our most popular website content in Excel:

Video Topic Tracking Spreadsheet

Feel free to “make a copy” of the above Excel spreadsheet template for your own use!

This strategy has helped us create well-liked videos such as this and this on social media as well as drive additional website traffic (traffic we would not have gotten without video content).

2. Create video topics from scratch

If you don’t have a ton of existing content to amplify, that’s alright! You can still drive traffic to your website by creating compelling video content ideas from scratch.

There are lots of great (free and paid) tools available that will help you to uncover popular topics. Here are two of our favorites:

  • BuzzSumo

You can use BuzzSumo to find the most shared content from any URL – instantly allowing you to determine what content has worked for your peers and competitors. You can also find the most shared content for any topic.

For example, let’s say we were interested in driving website traffic based on the topic of social media marketing. We’d simply enter that search term into BuzzSumo and the results would look something like this:

BuzzSumo Search Tool

Discovering relevant topics using search terms and website URLs are my favorite way to use BuzzSumo.

  • Ahrefs Keyword Explorer

Another great way to generate a list of video ideas to drive quality traffic to your website is with a keyword tool such as Ahref Keywords Explorer.

Keywords explorer can allows you to identify thousands of keyword and topic possibilities in a matter of seconds (and which topics are most popular based on search volume!)

For example, let’s say you’re interested in driving website traffic focused on healthy juices. Simply enter your search term into Keywords Explorer and Ahrefs does all of the work:

Ahrefs Keyword Tool

The best part is that the tool provides “alternatives” for your selected keyword and related topics that might be useful for your business.

Other great tools for generating engaging video topics:

3. Create videos to promote your content

Once you have a list of video topics, it’s time to create the content. There are plethora of great marketing tools to help you create video content, but to help dwindle it down, here are a few of our favorites:

Video Tools

At Buffer, we regularly use Animoto  to create short, engaging blog post summaries that we can share across social media to drive website traffic back to Buffer.

There are tons of best-practices that help to make videos on social media engaging, but quite possibly the most important factor is video length. Keep in mind that people are often browsing social media from their mobile phone and so quick, compelling videos will perform best.

Optimal Video Timing

For a complete guide on creating engaging short videos for social media, check out our in-depth blog post where we cover everything you need to know.

Amplifying website traffic with social media ads

Social media advertising has been an effective way for us at Buffer to boost website traffic around top performing blog posts, strategic marketing initiatives, landing pages, and even our podcast.

When comparing Facebook and Instagram advertising to other options such a PPC, we realized that we could generate hundreds of thousands of visits at a fraction of the cost (often less than $0.10 per click).

Buffer Advertising Stats

The best part is that it’s extremely easy to get started. Here’s our simple approach to social media advertising.

Boost your top-performing content

A straightforward way to drive traffic to your website with advertising is to boost your top performing content on Facebook and Instagram. Here’s how:

  1. Start by posting your content organically to Facebook and Instagram
  2. Check your analytics to see which posts have a high engagement rate (engagement / reach * 100)
  3. Use Facebook Ads Manager to create a custom audience that is likely to interact with your content
  4. Create a custom “Traffic” campaign in Ads Manager or use the “Boost” button to promote your top posts
  5. Generate social proof by regularly responding to comments and interacting with your audience

For example, we posted an article to Facebook about “how to grow your Instagram account” and it immediately received higher-than-normal organic interaction.

In order to promote the post, we created a new traffic campaign and ad set, targeting folks interested in topics such as social media marketing, social media manager, and Social Media Examiner.

Audience Targeting Facebook

We then set a daily budget of $20 and promoted the post. Here’s what it looks like:

Instagram Growth Facebook Ad

To date, this ad has generated more than 125,000 visits to the Buffer Blog for right around $0.06 per click, which has led to thousands of trials and hundreds of customers.

Create social media advertising content from scratch

Naturally, there will be times when you’ll want to promote content, initiatives, and projects that aren’t necessarily classified as top-performers.

We wanted to increase the number of downloads to the Buffer Podcast, for example, and looked to social media advertising as a means to do so. Today, we’ve generated more than 30,000 clicks to the Buffer podcast on iTunes, resulting in a 65 percent increase in downloads in less than six months.

Buffer Podcast Ads to Generate Website Traffic

Here’s how we did it:

  • We set up a Custom Audience targeting all traffic to the Buffer Blog and buffer.com knowing that brand awareness would increase our CTR and decrease our CPC.
  • Next we added an additional targeting filter to only deliver ads to iPhone, iPad, and other iOS devices and linked directly to the episode on iTunes (rather than the show notes or podcast landing page). This reduced the friction of going from podcast ad >> podcast subscriber.
  • We chose the most popular episodes from the podcast and started there — $10 per day using the “Post Traffic” campaign option in Facebook. We keep a close eye on CPC and whenever it creeps above $0.25–0.30 we shut it off and start a new ad.

“Social media advertising has been an effective way for us at Buffer to boost website traffic around top performing blog posts, strategic marketing initiatives, landing pages, and even our podcast. In the past year alone, we’ve used Facebook and Instagram advertising to generate more than 100,000 unique targeted visits to our website for less than $0.25 per click, which has resulted in thousands of leads and hundreds of new customers. Plus, it has had a huge impact on brand awareness and word-of-mouth marketing.”.

Brian Peters (@brian_g_peters)
Digital Marketing, Buffer

Social media advertising best-practices:

  • Test images, captions, and headlines until you find the right combination
  • Look for a relevancy score of 8-10 on brand awareness type content
  • Increase budget with successful posts (immediately shut down others)
  • Keep an eye on frequency rate (try not to exceed 2.0)
  • Evergreen content can run as long as you want!

If you’re just getting started with social media advertising or you’re looking to build upon what you already know, we have a brand new Skillshare class all about advertising (we’re happy to offer you a free month of Skillshare Premium)

Over to you

We hope you enjoyed our webinar with Ahrefs and all of the content included in this post!

We’d love to hear from you as well.

What tactics and strategies have worked for your business to generate lots of quality website traffic? Feel free to drop a comment below!

Learn more about how Ahrefs can help your business here or check out more of Tim Soulo’s work here.

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Online Marketing Agency Cardiff 

Looking for an Online Marketing Agency in Cardiff?


Maybe you’re looking for any of the following services?

Outsourced Online Marketing Agency Services:

  • Search Engine Optimisation / SEO – Onsite & Offsite Optimisation
  • Blogging 
  • Content Writing
  • Link Building
  • Social Media Marketing Services / SMM
  • Online Advertising

If you are looking for an Online Marketing Agency that provides  any of those Outsourced Online Marketing Services please give us a call on: 07517 024979 or email: maconsultancy1@gmail.com

In addition to our Outsourced Online Marketing services our Online Marketing Agency also provides:


  • Online Marketing Consultancy
  • Web Marketing Consultancy
  • SEO Consultancy
  • Social Media Consultancy
  • Website Consultancy

& Training:

  • Online Marketing Training
  • Web Marketing Training
  • SEO Training
  • Social Media Training
  • Website Training

Online Marketing Agency Prices:

We can provide our services from just £100 a month, our training from £200 (for a 3 hour course), and consultancy from £250 (for 5 hours in a month).

Any questions?

Feel free to get in touch on either of our contact methods:

Call us on: 07517 024979 or email: maconsultancy1@gmail.com

The online marketing agency Cardiff post was written “By Mike Armstrong”

Online Marketing Agency Cardiff 

Looking for an Online Marketing Agency in Cardiff?


Maybe you’re looking for any of the following services?

Outsourced Online Marketing Agency Services:

  • Search Engine Optimisation / SEO – Onsite & Offsite Optimisation
  • Blogging 
  • Content Writing
  • Link Building
  • Social Media Marketing Services / SMM
  • Online Advertising

If you are looking for an Online Marketing Agency that provides  any of those Outsourced Online Marketing Services please give us a call on: 07517 024979 or email: maconsultancy1@gmail.com

In addition to our Outsourced Online Marketing services our Online Marketing Agency also provides:


  • Online Marketing Consultancy
  • Web Marketing Consultancy
  • SEO Consultancy
  • Social Media Consultancy
  • Website Consultancy

& Training:

  • Online Marketing Training
  • Web Marketing Training
  • SEO Training
  • Social Media Training
  • Website Training

Online Marketing Agency Prices:

We can provide our services from just £100 a month, our training from £200 (for a 3 hour course), and consultancy from £250 (for 5 hours in a month).

Any questions?

Feel free to get in touch on either of our contact methods:

Call us on: 07517 024979 or email: maconsultancy1@gmail.com

The online marketing agency Cardiff post was written “By Mike Armstrong”